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(65)-THE MONEY MEASURMENT CONCEPT

Thursday, December 31, 2009

The Money Measurement Concept

The money measurement concept states that accounts will only deal with those items to which a monetary value can be attributed.

For example, in the balance sheet of a business monetary values can be attributed to such assets as machinery and stocks of goods.

The money measurement concept introduces limitations to the subject matter of accounts. A business may have intangible assets such as the flair of a good manager or the loyalty of its workforce. These may be important enough to give it a clear superiority over an otherwise identical business, but because they cannot be valued in monetary items they do not appear anywhere in the accounts.

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(64)-THE CONSISTENCY CONCEPT

Wednesday, December 30, 2009

The Consistency Concept

The consistency concept states that similar items should be accorded similar accounting treatments.

Accounting is not an exact science. There are many areas in which judgment must be exercised in attributing money values to items appearing in accounts. Over the years certain procedures and principles have come to be recognized as good accounting practice, but within these limits there are often various acceptable methods of accounting for similar items.

The consistency concept states that in preparing accounts consistency should be observed in two respects.
  1. Similar items within a single set of accounts should be given similar accounting treatment.
  2. The same treatment should be applied from one period to another in accounting for similar items. This enables valid comparisons to be made from one period to the next (sometimes this called the comparability concept).

Consistency has been sidelined to a certain extend by financial reporting standards. In financial reporting standards is more consider which accounting policy is most appropriate and then apply this policy to give a true and fair view. Changing an accounting policy may contradict the consistency concept.

(63)-THE PRUDENCE CONCEPT

Sunday, December 27, 2009

The Prudence Concept

The prudence concept states that where alternative procedures, or alternative valuations, are possible, the one selected should be the one which gives the most cautions presentation of the business’s financial position or result.

The importance of prudence has diminished over time. Prudence is a desirable quality of financial statements but not bedrock. The key reason for this charge of perspective is that some firms have been over pessimistic and over stated provisions in times of high profits in order to profit smooth.

You should bear this is in mind as you read through the explanation of prudence. On the one hand assets and profits should not be overstated, but a balance sheet must be achieved to prevent the material overstatement of liabilities or losses.

(62)-THE ACCRUALS CONCEPT OR MATCHING CONCEPT

Saturday, December 26, 2009

The Accruals Concept or Matching Concept

The accruals concept states that revenue and costs must be recognized as they are earned or incurred, not as money is received or paid. They must be matched with one another so far as their relationship can be established or justifiably assumed, and debit with in the profit and loss account of the period to which they relate.

Financial Reporting Standards also stipulates that financial statements must be prepared under the accruals concept. This concept is a cornerstone of present day financial statements.

Essentially, the accruals concept states that, in computing profit, revenue earned must be matched against the expenditure incurred in earned it.


The companies act gives legal recognition to the accruals concept, stating that, all income and charges relating to the financial year to which the accounts relate shall be taken into account, without regard to the date of receipt or payment. This has the effect, as we have seen, of requiring business to take credit for sales and purchases when made, rather than when paid for, and also carry unsold stock forward in the balance sheet rather than to deduct its cost from profit for the period.

Example,

If company Y makes 20 shirts at a cost of 100$ and sells them for 200$, she makes a profit of 100$. However, if company Y had only sold 18 shirts, it would have been incorrect to charge its profit and loss account with the cost of twenty shirts, as it still has 2 shirts in stock. If it intends to sell them in June it is likely to make a profit on the sale. Therefore, only the purchase cost of 18 shirts 90$ should be matched with its sales revenue, leaving it with a profit of 90$.

(61)-THE GOING CONCERN CONCEPT

Friday, December 25, 2009

The Going Concern Concept

The going concern concept implies that the business will continue in operational existence for the foreseeable future, and that there is no intention to put the company into liquidation or to make drastic cutbacks to the scale of operations.

Financial reporting standards 18 stats that the financial statements must be prepared under the going concern basis unless the entity is being or is going to be liquidated or if has ceased trading. The directors of a company must also disclose any significant doubts about the company’s future if and when they arise.

The main significant of the going concern is that the assets of the business should not be valued at their break up value, which is the amount that they would sell for if they were sold off piecemeal and the business were thus broken up.

(60)-ACCOUNTING CONVENTIONS

Thursday, December 24, 2009

Accounting Conventions

Accounting Practice has developed gradually over a matter of centuries. Many of its procedures are operated automatically by people who have never questioned whether alternative methods exits which are just as valid.

However, the procedures in common use imply the acceptance of certain concepts which are by no means self evident; nor are they the only possible concepts. These concepts could be used to build up an accounting framework.
  • The going concern concept
  • The accruals or matching concept
  • The prudent concept
  • The consistency concept
  • The entity concept
  • The money measurement concept
  • The separate valuation principle
  • The materiality concept
  • The historical cost concept
  • The stable monetary unit
  • The objectivity concept
  • The realization concept
  • The duality concept
  • Substance over from
  • The time interval concept

(59)-SUSPENSE ACCOUNT

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Suspense Accounts

Suspense accounts, as well as being used to correct some errors, are also opened when it is not known immediately where to post an amount. When the mystery is solved, the suspense account is closed and the amount correctly posted using a journal entry.

Suspense accounts might contain several items

If more than one error or unidentifiable posting to a ledger accounts arises during an accounting period, they will all be merged together in the same suspense account. In deed, until the causes of the errors are discovered, the bookkeepers are unlikely to know exactly how many errors there are.

There is a balance on a suspense account, together with enough information to make the necessary corrections, leaving a nil balance on the suspense account and correct balances on various other accounts. In practice, of course, finding these errors is far from easy.

Another use of suspense accounts occurs when a bookkeeper does not know in which account to post one side of a transaction. Until then mystery is sorted out, the credit entry can be recorded in a suspense account.

A typical example is when the business receives cash through the post from a source which cannot be determined. The double entry in the accounts would be a debit in the cash book, and a credit to a suspense account.

Suspense accounts are only temporary

It must be stressed that a suspense account can only be temporary. Posting to a suspense account are only made when the bookkeeper does not know yet what to do, or when an error has occurred. Mysteries must be solved, and errors must be corrected. Under no circumstances should there still be a suspense account when it comes to preparing the balance sheet of a business. The suspense account must be cleared and all the correcting entries made before the final accounts are drown up.

None should exist when it comes to drawing up the financial statements at the end of the accounting period.

(58)-A SUSPENSE ACCOUNT

Tuesday, December 22, 2009

A Suspense Account

A suspense account is an account showing a balance equal to the difference in a trial balance.
A suspense account is a temporary account which can be opened for a number of reasons. The most common reasons are as follows.

  • A trial balance is drawn up which does not balance, means total debits do not equal total credits.
  • The bookkeeper of the business knows where to post the credit side of a transaction, but does not know where to post the debit. For an example, a cash payment might be made and must obviously be credited to cash. But the bookkeeper may not know what the payment is for, and so will not know which account to debit.

In the both cases, a temporary suspense account is opened up until the problem is sorted out.
Use of suspense account; when the trial balance does not balance

When an error has occurred which results in an imbalance between total debits and total credits in the ledger accounts, the first step is to open a suspense account.

For example, suppose an accountant drawn up a trial balance and finds that, for some reason he cannot immediately discover, total debits exceed total credit by 150$.

(57)-DETAILS ABOUT ERRORS IN ACCOUNTING

Monday, December 21, 2009

Details about Errors in Accounting

Errors of transposition

An error of transposition is when two digits in an amount are accidentally recorded the wrong way round.

For example, suppose that a sale is recorded in the sales account as 10560$, but it has been incorrectly recorded in the total debtors account as 10650$. The error is the transposition of the 6 and 5.

Errors of omission

An error of omission means failing to record a transaction at all, or making a debit or credit entry, but not the corresponding double entry.

Foe example, If a business receives an invoice from a supplier for 500$, the transaction might be omitted from the book entirely. As a result, both the total debit and the total credits of the business will be out by 500$.

Error of principle

An error of principle involves making a double entry in the belief that the transaction is being entered in the correct accounts, but subsequently finding out that the accounting entry breaks the rule of an accounting principle or concept.

For example, repairs to a machine costing 300$ should be treated as revenue or expenditure, and debited to a repair account. If, instead, the repair costs are added to the cost of the fixed asset as capital expenditure an error of principle would have occurred. As a result, although total debits still equal total credits, the repairs account is 300$ less than it should be and the cost of the fixed asset is 300$ grater than it should be.

Error of commission

Errors of commission are where the bookkeepers make a mistake in carrying out his or her task of recording transaction in the accounts.

For example, putting a debit entry or a credit entry in the wrong account or errors of casting (adding up)

Compensating errors

Compensating errors are errors which are, coincidentally, equal and opposite of one another.

For example, two transposition errors of 540$ might occur in extracting ledger balances, one on each side of the double entry. In the administration expenses account, 2282$ might be written instead of 2822$, while in the sundry income account, 8391$ might be written instead of 8931$. Both the debits and the credits would be 540$ too low, and the mistake would be not apparent when trial balance is cast. Consequently, compensating errors hide the fact that there are errors in then trial balance.

(56)-TYPES OF ERRORS IN ACCOUNTING

Sunday, December 20, 2009

Types of Errors in Accounting

It is not really possible to draw up a complete list of all the errors which might be made by bookkeepers and accountants. Even if you tried, it is more than likely that as soon as you finished, someone would commit a completely new error that you had never even dreamed of,
However it is possible to describe five types of error which cover most of the errors which might occur.


They are follows,
  • Errors of transposition
  • Errors of omission
  • Errors of principle
  • Errors of commission
  • Compensating errors

Once an error has been detected, it needs to be put right.

  • If the correction involves a double entry in the ledger accounts, then it is done by using a journal entry in the journal.
  • When the error breaks the rule of double entry, then it is corrected by the use of a suspense account as well as a journal entry.

(55)-THE OPERATION OF CONTROL ACCOUNTS

Friday, December 18, 2009

The Operation of Control Accounts
  • The two most important control accounts are those for debtors and creditors control accounts. They are part of the double entry system.
  • Cash books and day books are totally periodically and the appropriate totals are posted to the control accounts.
  • The individual entries in cash and day books will have been entered one by one in the appropriate personal accounts contained in the sales ledger and purchase ledger. These personal accounts are not part of the double entry system, they are memorandum only.
  • At suitable intervals the balances on personal accounts are extracted from the ledgers, listed and totaled. The total of the outstanding balances can then be reconciled to the balance on the appropriate control account and any errors located and corrected.

(54)-BALANCING AND AGREEING CONTROL ACCOUNTS

Thursday, December 17, 2009

Balancing and Agreeing control Accounts

The control account should be balanced regularly (at least monthly) and the balance on the account agreed with the sum of the individual debtors or creditors balances extracted from the sales or bought ledger respectively.

It is one of the sad facts of an accountant’s life that more often than not the balance on the control account does not agree with the sum of balances extracted, for on or more of the following reasons.
  • An incorrect amount may be posted to the control account because of a miscast of the total in the book of prime entry. The nominal ledger debit and credit posting will than balance, but the control account balance will not agree with the sum of individual balances extracted from the sales ledger or purchase ledger. A journal entry must than be made in the nominal ledger to correct the control account and the corresponding sales or expense account.
  • A transposition error may occur in posting an individual’s balance from the book of prime entry to the memorandum ledger.
  • A transaction may be recorded in the control account and not in the memorandum ledger, or vice versa. This requires an entry in the ledger that has been missed out which means a double posing if the control account has to be corrected, and a single posting if it is individual’s balance in the memorandum ledger that is at fault.
  • The sum of balance extracted from the memorandum ledger may be incorrectly extracted or miscast. This would involve simple correcting the total of the balances.

(53)-THE PURPOSE OF CONTROL ACCOUNTS

Wednesday, December 16, 2009

The Purpose of Control Accounts

The reasons for having control accounts are as follows.

(1)-Check on the accuracy

They provide a check on the accuracy of entries made in the personal accounts in the sales ledger and purchase ledger. It is very easy to make a mistake in posting entries, because there might be hundreds of entries to make. Figures might get transposed. Some entries might be omitted altogether, so that an invoice or a payment transaction does not appear in a personal account as it should. By comparing,

  • The total balance on the debtors control account with the total of individual balances on the personal accounts in the sales ledger.
  • The total balance on the creditors control account with the total of individual balances on the personal accounts in the purchase ledger.
    It is possible to identify the fact that errors have been made.


(2)- Location of errors

The control accounts could also assist in the location of errors, where posting to the control accounts are made daily or weekly, or even monthly. If a clerk fails to record an invoice or a payment in a personal account, or makes a transaction error, it would be a formidable task to locate the error or errors at the end of a year, say, given the hundreds or thousands of transactions during the year.

By using the control account, a comparison with the individual balances in the sales or purchase ledger can be made for every week or day of the month, and the error found much more quickly than if control accounts did not exist.

(3)- For internal check

Where there is a separate of clerical bookkeeping duties, the control account provides an internal check. The person posting entries to the control accounts will act as check on a different person whose job it is to post entries to the sales and purchase ledger accounts.

(4)- More simply and quickly

To provide debtors and creditors balances more quickly for producing a trial balance or balance sheet. A single balance on a control account is obviously expected simpler and quickly than many individual balances in the sales or purchase ledger.

This means also that the number of accounts in the double entry bookkeeping system can be kept down to a manageable size, since the personal accounts are memorandum accounts only and the control accounts instead provide the accounts required for a double entry system.

(52)-CONTROL ACCOUNTS

Tuesday, December 15, 2009

Control Accounts

A control account is an account in the nominal ledger in which a record is kept of the total value of a number of similar but individual items.

Control accounts are used chiefly for debtors and creditors.

A Debtors Control Account

A debtor’s control account is an account in which records are kept of transactions involving all debtors in total. The balance on the debtors control account at any time will be the total amount due to the business at that time from its debtors.

A Creditors Control Account

A creditor’s control account is an account in which records are kept of transactions involving all creditors in total, and the balance on this account at any time will be the total amount owed by the business at that time to its creditors.

Although control accounts are used mainly in accounting for debtors and creditors, they can also be kept for other items, such as stocks of goods, wages and salaries. The first important idea to remember, however, is that a control account is an account which keeps a total record for a collective item which in reality consists of many individual items.

A control account is an impersonal ledger account which will appear in the nominal ledger.

(51)-BANK RECONCILIATION

Monday, December 14, 2009

Bank Reconciliation

Bank reconciliation is a comparison of a bank statement with the cash book.

Differences between the balance on the bank statement and the balance in the cash book will be errors or timing differences, and they should be identified and satisfactorily explained.

The differences fall into three categories,
  1. Errors
  2. Bank charges or interest
  3. Time differences

Bank reconciliation is needed to identify and account for the differences between the cash book and the bank statement.

What to look for when doing bank reconciliation

The cash book and bank statement will rarely agree at a given date. If you are doing bank reconciliation, you may have to look for the following items.

  • Corrections and adjustments to the cash book
    1.
    -Payments made into the account or from the account by way of standing order, which have not yet been entered in the cash book.
    2. -Dividends received, paid direct into the bank account but not yet entered in the cash book.
    3. -Bank interest and bank charges, not yet entered in the cash book.
  • Items reconciling the correct cash book balance to the bank statement.
    1.
    -Cheques drawn by the business and credited in the cash book, which have not yet been presented to the bank, or “cleared” and so do not yet appear on the bank statement.
    2. -Cheques received by the business, paid into the bank and debited in the cash book, but which have not yet been cleared and entered in the account by the bank, and so do not yet appear on the bank statement.

(50)-THE BANK STATEMENT

Sunday, December 13, 2009

The Bank Statement

It is common practice for a business to issue a monthly statement to each credit customer, terming,
  • The balance he owed on his account at the beginning of the month
  • New debts incurred by the customer during the month
  • Payments made by him during the month
  • The balance he owes on his account at the end of the month

In the same way, a bank statement is sent by a bank to its short term debtors and creditors.

Customer with bank overdrafts and customers with money in their account itemizing the balance on the account at the beginning of the period, receipts into the account and payments from the account during the period, and the balance at the end of the period.

(49)-BANK STATEMENT AND CASH BOOK

Saturday, December 12, 2009

Bank Statement and Cash Book

The cash book of a business is the record of how much cash the business believes that it has in the bank. In the same way, you yourself might keep a private record of how much money you think you have in your own personal account at your bank, perhaps by making a note in your cheque book of income received and the cheques you write.

If you do keep such a record you will probably agree that when your bank sends you a bank statement from time to time the amount it shows as being the balance in your account is rarely exactly the amount that you have calculated for yourself as being your current balance.

Why might your own estimate of your bank balance be different from the amount shown on your bank statement?

There are three common explanations.
  1. Error.
    Error in calculation, or recording income and payments, are more likely to have been made by you than by the bank, but it is conceivable that the bank has made a mistake too.
  2. Bank charges or bank interest.
    The bank might deduct charges for interest on an overdraft or for its service, which you are not informed about until you receive the bank statement.
  3. The differences
    There might be some cheques that you have received and paid into the bank, but which have not yet been “cleared” and added to your account.

Similarly, you might have made some payments by cheque, and reduced the balance in your account accordingly in the record that you keep, but the person who receives the cheque might not bank at a while.

If you do keep a personal record of your cash position at the bank, and if you do check your periodic bank statements against what you think you should have in your account, you are doing exactly the same thing that the bookkeepers of a business do when they make a bank reconciliation.

(48)-WHAT IS BANK RECONCILIATION

Friday, December 11, 2009

What is Bank Reconciliation

Bank reconciliation is a comparison of a bank statement with the cask book. Differences between the balances on the bank statement and the balance in the cask book will be errors or timing differences, and they should be identified and satisfactorily explained.

We will discuss our next posts about bank reconciliations.

(47)-THE FIXED ASSET REGISTER AND THE NOMINAL LEDGER

Thursday, December 10, 2009

The Fixed Asset Register and the Nominal Ledger

The fixed assets register is not part of the double entry and is there for memorandum and control purposes.

The fixed assets register must be reconciled to the nominal ledger to make sure that all additions, disposals and depreciation charges have been posted.

For example, the total of all the cost figures in the register for motor vehicles should equal the balance on the motor vehicle cost account in nominal ledger. The same goes for accumulated depreciation.

The fixed asset register and the physical assets

It is possible that the fixed assets register may not reconcile with the fixed assets actually presents. This may be for the following reasons,
  • Asset has been stolen or damaged, which has not been noticed or recorded
  • Excessive wear and tear or obsolescence has not been recorded
  • New assets not yet recorded in the register because it has not been kept up to date
  • Errors made in entering details in the register
  • Improvement and modifications have not been recorded in the register

(46)-THE FIXED ASSET REGISTER

Wednesday, December 9, 2009

The Fixed Asset Register

Nearly all organization keeps fixed assets register. This is a listing of all fixed assets owned by the organization, broken down perhaps by department, location or asset type.

A fixed assets register is maintained primarily for internal purposes. It shows organizations investment in capital equipment. A fixed asset register is also part of the internal control system. Fixed assets registers are sometimes called real accounts.

Data kept in a fixed assets register
  • The internal reference number for each physical identification purpose
  • Manufactures serial number for maintain purposes
  • Description of asset
  • Location of asset
  • Department which owns asset
  • Purchase date for calculation of depreciation
  • Cost
  • Depreciation method and estimated useful life for calculation of depreciation
  • Net book value or written down value
  • Purchase of an asset
  • Sale of an asset
  • Loss or destruction of an asset
  • Transfer of an assets between departments
  • Reason of estimated useful life of an asset
  • Scrapping of an asset
  • Revaluation of an asset

Outputs from a fixed assets register

  • Reconciliations of net book value to the nominal ledger
  • Depreciation charges posted to the nominal ledger
  • Physical verification for audit purposes

(45)-VALUATION BASIS OF FIXED ASSETS

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Valuation Basis of Fixed Assets

The following valuation basis should be used for properties that are not impaired.
  • Specialized properties should be valued on the basis of depreciated replacement cost.
    Specialized properties are those which, due to their specialized nature, are rarely, if ever, sold on the open market for single occupation for a continuation of their existing use, except as part of a sale of the business in occupation.

Example; oil refineries, chemical works, power stations, or schools, colleges and universities where there is no competing market demand from other organizations using these types of property in the locality.

  • Non specialized properties should be value on the basis of existing use value.
  • Properties surplus to an entities requirements should be value on the basis of open market value.

Where there is an indication of impairment, an impairment review should be carried out in accordance with Financial Reporting Standards. The asset should be recorded at the lower of revalued amount and recoverable amount.

Tangible fixed assets other than properties should be valued using market value or, if not obtainable, depreciated replacement cost.

(44)-FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS RULES FOR FIXED ASSET REVALUATION

Monday, December 7, 2009

Financial Reporting Standards Rules for Fixed Asset Revaluation

An entity may adopt a policy of revaluation tangible fixed assets. Where this policy is adopted it must be applied consistently to all assets of the same class.

A class of fixed assets is a category of tangible fixed assets having a similar nature function of use in the business of an entity.

Where an asset is revalued its carrying amount should be its current value as at the balance sheet date current value being the lower of replacement cost and recoverable amount.
To achieve he above, the standard stats that a full valuation should be carried out at least every five years with an interim valuation in year3. If it is likely that there has been a material change in value, interim valuation in year 1, 2 and 4 should also be carried out.


A full valuation should be conducted by either a qualified external value or a qualified internal value, provided that the valuation has been subject to review by a qualified external assessor. An interim valuation may be carried out by either an external or internal assessor.

For certain types of assets, there may be an active second hand market for the asset or appropriate indices may exist, so that the directors can establish the assets value with reasonable reliability and therefore avoid the need to use the services of a qualified assessor.

(43)-TANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS

Sunday, December 6, 2009

Tangible Fixed Assets

A tangible fixed asset should initial measured at cost.

Cost is purchase price and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset into working condition for its intended use.
For example of directly attributable costs are;

  • Acquisition costs such as stamp duty
  • Cost of site preparation and clearance
  • Initial delivery and handling costs
  • Installing costs
  • Professional fees like legal fees
  • The estimated cost of dismantling and removing the asset and restoring the site
    Any abnormal costs, such as those arising from design error, industrial disputes or idle capacity are not directly attributable costs and therefore should not be capitalized as part of the cost of the asset.

Finance costs

The capitalization of finance costs, including interest, is optional. However if an entity does capitalize finance costs they must do so consistently.

All finance costs that are directly attributable to the construction of a tangible fixed asset should be capitalized as part of the cost of the asset.

Directly attributable finance costs are those that would have been avoided if there had been no expenditure on the asset.

If Finance costs are capitalized, capitalization should start when,

  • Finance costs are being incurred
  • Expenditure on the asset is being incurred
  • Activities necessary to get the asset ready for use are in progress

Capitalization of finance costs should cease when the asset is ready for use.

Subsequent expenditure

Subsequent expenditure on a tangible fixed asset should only be capitalized in the following three circumstances.

  1. It enhances the economic benefits over and above those previously estimated. An example might be modifications made to a piece of machinery that increases its capacity or useful life.
  2. A component of an asset that has been treated separately for depreciation purposes has been restored or replaced.
  3. It relates to a major inspection or overhaul that restores economic benefits that have been consumed and reflected in the depreciation charge.

(42)-DISCLOSURES FOR FIXED ASSETS IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Saturday, December 5, 2009

Disclosures for Fixed Assets in Financial Statements

Notes to the accounts must show, for each class of fixed assets, an analysis of the movements on both cost and depreciation provisions.

Where any fixed assets of a company other than listed investments are included in the accounts at an alternative accounting valuation, the following information must also be given.
  • The years so far as they are known to the directors in which the assets were severally valued and the several values.
  • In the case of assets that have been valued during the financial period, the names of the persons who valued them or particulars of their qualification for doing so and whichever is stated the bases if valuation used by them.

A note to the accounts must classify land and buildings under the headings of;

  • Freehold property
  • Leasehold property,
  • Long leaseholds in which the unexpired term of the lease at the balance sheet date is not less than 50 years
  • Short leaseholds which are all leaseholds other than long leaseholds.

(41)-REVALUATION RESERVES FOR FIXED ASSETS

Friday, December 4, 2009

Revaluation Reserves for Fixed Assets

Where the value of any fixed asset is determined by using the alternative accounting rules the amount of profit or loss arising must be credited or as the case may be debited to a separate reserve, the revaluation reserve. The calculation of the relevant amounts should be based on the written down values of the assets prior to revaluation.

The revaluation reserve must be reduced to the extent that the amounts standing to the credit of the reserves are, in the opinion of the directors of the company, no longer necessary for the purpose of the accounting policies adopted by the company.

However, an amount may only be transferred from the reserve to the profit and loss account if either,
  • The amount in question was previously charged to that account.
  • It represents realized profit.

The only other transfer possible from the revaluation reserve is on capitalization, that is, when a bonus issue is made.

The amount of a revaluation reserve must be shown under a separate sub heading on the balance sheet. However the reserve need not necessarily be called a “revaluation reserve”.

(40)-VALUATION OF FIXED ASSETS

Wednesday, December 2, 2009

Valuation of Fixed Assets

Where an asset is purchased, its cost is simply the purchase price plus any expenses incidental to its acquisition.

Where an asset is produced by a company for its own use, its production cost must include the cost of row materials, consumables and other attribute direct costs such as labour cost. Production cost may additionally include a reasonable proportion of indirect costs, together with the interest on any capital borrowed to finance production of the asset.

The cost of any fixed asset having a limited economic life, whether purchase price or production cost, must reduced by provisions for depreciation calculated to write off the cost, less any residual value, systematically over the period of the assets useful life. This very general requirement is supplemented by the more detailed provisions of financial reporting standards.

Provision for a permanent reducing in value of a fixed asset must be made in the profit and loss account and the asset should be disclosed at the reduced amount in the balance sheet. Any such provision should be disclosed on the face of the profit and loss account or by way of note. Where a provision becomes no longer necessary, because the conditions giving rise to it have altered, it should be written back, and again disclosed should be made.

(39)-LEDGER ACCOUNTING ENTRIES FOR THE FIXED ASSET DISPOSALS

Tuesday, December 1, 2009

Ledger Accounting entries for the Fixed Asset Disposals

A profit on disposal is an item of other income in the profit and loss account, and a loss on disposal is an item of expense in the profit and loss account.

It is customary in ledger accounting to record the disposal of fixed assets in a disposal of fixed asset account. The profit or loss on disposal is the difference between,
  • The sale price of the asset, and
  • The net book value of the asset at the time of sale.

The relevant items which must appear in the disposal of fixed assets account are therefore,

  • The value of the asset, at cost or revalued amount.
  • The accumulated depreciation up to the date of sale.
  • The sale price of the asset.

For the disposal of fixed assets; ledger accounting entries are as follows,

  1. Transfer the cost of fixed asset, to disposal of fixed asset account.
    Disposal of fixed asset account --Debit
    Fixed asset account --Credit
  2. Transfer the accumulated depreciation on the asset as at the date of sale.
    Provision for depreciation account --Debit
    Disposal of fixed asset account --Credit
  3. Transfer the sale price of the asset. The sale is therefore not recorded in a sales account, but in the disposal of fixed asset account itself.
    Debtor account or cash book --Debit
    Disposal of fixed asset account --Credit
  4. The balance on the disposal account is the profit or loss on disposal and the corresponding double entry is recorded in the profit and loss account,
    • If loss
    Profit and loss account --Debit
    Disposal of fixed asset account --Credit
    • If profit
    Disposal of fixed account --Debit
    Profit and loss account --Credit

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